Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for School Education in India: Advantages, Challenges and Suggestions for Implementation
Yash Paul Sharma

Central Institute of Educational Technology, National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi-11016


Education is the backbone of any country. In India Right to Education encompasses the compulsory and free education to children between 6 and 14 years. But because of diverse sociological, geographical and political situation to achieve the target is far from reality. With changing time, new and innovative technologies make it possible to spread the seed of education to unreached and MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are one among them. MOOCs have various advantages over traditional teaching but challenging too. Implementation of MOOCs for school education requires technical expertise along with army of trainers. MOOCs will provide additional support to the learner as well teacher and also in teacher training programmes. MOOCs will be more beneficial for out of school children and in technical education. The MOOCs should be in blended mode and if Government adopts any strategy for certification as par with regular education, the MOOCs will be boon for India. A comprehensive model for MOOCs delivery is the need of the hour

Key Words: Massive Open Online Courses, SWAYAM, Open Educational Resources, OER, School Education, Educational Technology

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Anxiety Dimension of Personality among Urban and Rural Physical Education Students of Higher Secondary Schools

Dhanraj Singh Slathia

Rashtrasant Tukadoji Mahraj (RTM) University of Nagpur, INDIA.

The present study is undertaking with a view to find and compare the Anxiety level among rural and urban Physical Education Students of Higher Secondary Schools. It’s is hypothesized that there exists a non significant difference between the anxiety level among the rural and urban higher secondary students. For verification of these hypotheses, the data was collected from 140(70 from rural areas and 70 from urban areas) higher secondary students of Jammu district in Jammu and Kashmir by adopting random sampling. The data collected is subjected to statistical analysis t-test. The purpose of the study was to compare

Key Words: Rural & Urban Physical education students, Higher Secondary School, Anxiety

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Adopting Letter Grading System at Secondary School Level’
Ravindra Kumar

Central Institute of Educational Technology, NCERT, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-16


The ongoing measures and techniques adopted in our schools and educational set up suffer from many drawbacks and limitations. A number of measures have been adopted for bringing improvement in the evaluation system, specially the grading system. To measure of effectiveness of the grading system and willingness of the teachers to adopte this system was analysed in this study. A survey was done and data was collected from the teachers of Meerut City in Uttar Pradesh. The data was interpreted statistically and inferences were generated as per the data. Majority of the teachers are in favour of adopting letter grading system at secondary school.
Key Words: Grading System, Secondary School Level, Examination System

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A Novel Route of Synthesis for Schiff bases derived from 4-Chloro Benzaldehyde with 2 Amino 4-(P-Ethoxy Phenyl) Oxazole

Ajit Joshi*1, Niranjan Lal2 & Rajesh Kumar1

1Department of Chemistry, Mewar University, Gangrar Chittorgarh (Rajasthan) India
2Department of Aplied Science and Humanities Vidy College of Engg., Meerut (UP) India


Transition metals of 3d series are of immense importance due to their role in biological activity. A number of 3d metals are generally toxic in nature. For example cu having concentration more than 109 gm is toxic, it has been observed the toxicity of metal complexes can be reduced by the formation of their transition metal complexes. Keeping above fact in mind a novel route detected for the synthesis of Schiff bases of 3d metal series with 4-chloro benzaldehyde with 2-amino (4-ethoxy phenyl oxazole. The characterization of ligand as well as their metal complexes has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurement, Infrared spectra and magnetic moment data

 Key Words: Co (II), Ni (II), Mn (II) and Zn (II) complexes, Schiff base

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